G, C, and S Variations

These single letter phonograms have some special rules that change their sounds. This can really trip up a beginning reader if we aren’t clear on all of the rules…

G says it’s “soft” sound  /j/ when followed by e,i, or y as in gentle, giraffe, or gym (watch out for exceptions like girl and gill). It says it’s hard sound /g/ with a, o, or u as in gate, goggles, or gum.

C says /s/ when followed by e, i, or y as in cereal, city, or icy (watch out for the phonogram /ci/ which says /sh/ as in spacious). It says it’s hard sound /c/ with a, o, or u as in cat, cookie, or cut.

S says /s/ and sometimes /z/ when it follows a vowel as in nose, is, or as.

Watch this video to learn more…


Here are some of my favorite resources to teach and practice these phonograms:

C and G Sound Sort from Have Fun Teaching (click the pink download button for the pdf)

C and G Activity Pack from This Reading Mama

Up Next is STEP 8:Vowel Combinations that Make One Sound