These single letter phonograms have some special rules that change their sounds. This can really trip up a beginning reader if we aren’t clear on all of the rules…
G says it’s “soft” sound /j/ when followed by e,i, or y as in gentle, giraffe, or gym (watch out for exceptions like girl and gill). It says it’s hard sound /g/ with a, o, or u as in gate, goggles, or gum.
C says /s/ when followed by e, i, or y as in cereal, city, or icy (watch out for the phonogram /ci/ which says /sh/ as in spacious). It says it’s hard sound /c/ with a, o, or u as in cat, cookie, or cut.
S says /s/ and sometimes /z/ when it follows a vowel as in nose, is, or as.
Watch this video to learn more…
Here are some of my favorite resources to teach and practice these phonograms:
C and G Sound Sort from Have Fun Teaching (click the pink download button for the pdf)
C and G Activity Pack from This Reading Mama